Proposal of the Method For Calculation of the Maximum and Minimum Heat Consumption in Order to Determine Heat Purchase Cost For Premises in a Multi-Family Building ‒ Aleksandra Specjał (DOI: 10.15199/9.2022.5.1)
Keywords: heating costs, heat cost allocator, heat purchase costs, minimum heating cost, maximum heating cost
According to the recent changes in the regulations on settlements of individual heating costs , , in the case of using heat cost allocators it is necessary to determine the maximum and minimum variable cost of the purchase of heat for each apartment. The article presents a proposal for calculating: the maximum heat consumption by the flats in a multi-family building possible to be delivered to the premises due to technical conditions and the minimum heat consumption needed in the premises in order to maintain the minimum allowable internal temperature in the apartment (equal to 16oC) in the actual heating season. Based on these values it is possible to calculate the maximum and minimum variable cost of heat purchase in each apartment related to m2 of the area. Some simplifications must be adopted in order the presented method could be widely used in systems for settlement of individual heating costs. Based on the calculations with the use of the engineering calculation program it was shown which simplifications can be applied in order to avoid large errors in the settlements.
Analysis of Energy Demand For Heating of a Single-Family Building ‒ Piotr Ciuman, Aneta Witek (DOI:10.15199/9.2022.5.2)
Keywords: single-family house, heating, heat demand analyses
The cost of an energy efficient building is higher than traditional, requires the application of appropriate construction solutions, the highest quality of construction materials and appropriate care of the contractors, but brings measurable economic benefits during its exploitation. It is also very important to properly integrate the building into its surroundings. When designing an energy-efficient building, it is important to carefully analyse the possible solutions, taking into account many factors that determine the energy consumption of the building. Seasonal heating demand analyses or energy analyses covering the life cycle of a building are useful in this respect. In this paper, analyses of the influence of the location and architectural features of a single-family building on its energy demand for heating were carried out.
The Concept of Modernization of the Central Heating System for the Existing Church in the Commune of Jakubów ‒ Joanna Rucińska, Joanna Kaczorek (DOI: 10.15199/9.2022.5.3)
Keywords: modernization of installations, energy consumption in the building
Most sacred buildings in Poland are buildings from the last century, which do not meet the requirements for thermal insulation of partitions and are often not equipped with a heating system. When the temperature is too low, the comfort of their users is not maintained in many facilities of this type. This becomes the basis for looking for solutions increasing thermal comfort, with rational energy consumption, investment outlays and operating costs.
The aim of the engineering thesis was to design a central heating system and to consider changing the ventilation system for the existing religious building in the Jakubów. The work takes into account the individual character of the analyzed object.
The selection of the central heating system was made on the basis of calculations of the demand for heating power for the existing sacred building. Based on the literature analysis and the investor’s guidelines, the target central heating system was selected and designed. Due to aspects related to the operating costs of the facility as well as the emission of pollutants, it was decided to change the source in the church.
Churches are buildings that should be modernized taking into account the specificity of the building. In accordance with the applicable regulations, it is not necessary to prepare energy performance for them, however, due to the increasing energy costs as well as due to the limitation of the negative impact on the environment (limitation of local emissions of pollutants), the managers of these buildings need advice on energy-efficient solutions. The paper presents an example of a solution for a church in the Jakubów.
Installation Materials in the Context of Water Stagnation Exacerbated by the COVID-19 Pandemic ‒ Edyta Dudkiewicz, Łukasz Amanowicz (DOI: 10.15199/9.2022.5.4)
Keywords: water installation, biofilm, Legionella bacterium, disinfection
The situation caused by the shutdowns of plants and by the closure of public buildings during the COVID-19 pandemic brings new challenges for water installations safety with it. New maintaining conditions of the water system require taking additional actions to protect users against microbial contamination, primarily caused by Legionella bacterium. It is particularly dangerous for people with weakened immunity system or those after lung diseases. The probability of occurrence and multiplication of microorganisms in the period of water stagnation depends, among others, on the type of installation materials used. Taking into account the requirements of ensuring the durability of installations made of various materials, Polish and global guidance for the water installation are discussed as a part of reduction of the possibility of Legionella development.
Energy and economic analysis of the building heating system equipped with a compressor heat pump. Part 3 – Calculation of compressor heat pump parameters‒ Janusz Zmywaczyk, Piotr Koniorczyk, Małgorzata Wizor (DOI: 10.15199/9.2022.5.5)
Keywords: compressor heat pump, technical parameters of the heat pump, measurement results
The test subject was a WPC 13 compressor brine/water heat pump with a heating capacity of 13.2 kW. The test stand was located in a single-family building with a total area of 340 m2 . The heat pump was adapted to cooperate with a low-temperature heat exchanger, which was a water tank located next to the building. This paper presents the results of compressor heat pump performance calculations based on measurements of day and night outdoor temperature, bottom heat source temperature, electricity consumed, and heat energy produced obtained in Part 2 of this study in February, March, April, and October, November, and December 2020.
Microclimate of Office Rooms in The Day of Climate Changes ‒ Monika Blaszczok, Marcin Stachoń (DOI: 10.15199/9.2022.5.6)
Keywords: microclimate of rooms, thermal comfort, air quality, offices
In the era of climate change,characterised by, among others, high temperatures in summer, ensuring thermal comfort in work rooms is of paramount importance. In older buildings, adapted for use as office spaces, there is often no space for air-conditioning installation. Therefore, multisplit systems that allowing to lower the temperature in the room are commonly used in such cases.. Unfortunately, working in recirculated air, these systems, do not provide an adequate air exchange in the room. As a result, the air quality drops significantly. The research conducted in the summer allowed us to look at the issue of the microclimate of office spaces. The recording of temperature, relative air humidity and CO2 concentration were the basis for the analysis of thermal comfort and air quality in sample offices.